Pronouns

Independent Pronouns

singular plural
first person ai oso (inclusive), osir (exclusive)
second person yu yo
third person em, du (pejorative) emo, du (pejorative)

Use oso to include the person the speaker is addressing; use osir to exclude the person the speaker is addressing. Use du when the person or thing referred to is held in disdain or contempt, or to mean "someone".

Yumi is a third "first person plural" pronoun, and literally means "you-and-me."

  • ai laik Skayon "I am a Sky-Person"
  • oso laik raunon "we are [all] people" (oso includes the addressee)
  • osir laik gona, ba yu laik fisa "we are warriors, but you are a healer" (osir excludes the addressee)
  • yumi na chich oso heda op "you and I will talk to our commander"
  • yu laik fisa "you are a healer"
  • yo na gon raun "you-all will fight"
  • em ste yuj "he is strong"
  • du ste kwelen "he is weak" (du indicates that "he" is not respected or liked by the speaker)
  • emo don hon sobwe-de op "they found the tunnel"
  • du ste torch ai op "they are torturing me"
  • du na hon em op "someone will find it"

Possessive Pronouns

singular plural
first person ain, omon oson
second person yun, oyun yon, oyon
third person emon, omon emon, omon

The pairs of pronouns in the cells above indicate whether the thing being referred to is singular or plural.

  • dison laik ain "this is mine"
  • dison laik omon "these are mine"
  • dison laik oson "this/these is/are ours (not you)" "this/these is/are ours (all of us)"
  • dison laik yun "this is yours"
  • dison laik oyun "these are yours"
  • dison laik yon "this is y'all's"
  • dison laik oyon "these are y'all's"
  • dison laik emon "this is his/hers/its/theirs"
  • dison laik omon "these are his/hers/its/theirs"

Possessive Adjectives

singular plural
first person ai, oma (oso, osir)
second person yu, oyu yo, oyo
third person em, om emo, omo

These look pretty much like the independent pronouns, but each of the cells except first person plural has an alternate "plural referent" form. The alternate form is used when the thing being possessed/owned is plural.

  • ai java "my spear"
  • oma java "my spears"
  • oso stegeda "our village/s (all of us)"
  • osir stegeda "our village/s (but not yours)"
  • yu java "your spear"
  • oyu java "your spears"
  • yo stegeda "y'all's village"
  • oyo java "y'all's spears"
  • em java "his/her/its spear"
  • om java "his/her/its spears"
  • emo stegeda "their village"
  • omo java "their spears"

Yumi has no possessive forms; instead use the standard first person plural forms.